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Dapr offers NuGet packages to help with the development of .NET pluggable components.


Project creation

Creating a pluggable component starts with an empty ASP.NET project.

dotnet new web --name <project name>

Add NuGet packages

Add the Dapr .NET pluggable components NuGet package.

dotnet add package Dapr.PluggableComponents.AspNetCore

Create application and service

Creating a Dapr pluggable component application is similar to creating an ASP.NET application. In Program.cs, replace the WebApplication related code with the Dapr DaprPluggableComponentsApplication equivalent.

using Dapr.PluggableComponents;

var app = DaprPluggableComponentsApplication.Create();

    "<socket name>",
    serviceBuilder =>
        // Register one or more components with this service.


This creates an application with a single service. Each service:

  • Corresponds to a single Unix Domain Socket
  • Can host one or more component types

Implement and register components

Test components locally

Pluggable components can be tested by starting the application on the command line and configuring a Dapr sidecar to use it.

To start the component, in the application directory:

dotnet run

To configure Dapr to use the component, in the resources path directory:

kind: Component
  name: <component name>
  type: state.<socket name>
  version: v1
  - name: key1
    value: value1
  - name: key2
    value: value2

Any metadata properties will be passed to the component via its IPluggableComponent.InitAsync() method when the component is instantiated.

To start Dapr (and, optionally, the service making use of the service):

dapr run --app-id <app id> --resources-path <resources path> ...

At this point, the Dapr sidecar will have started and connected via Unix Domain Socket to the component. You can then interact with the component either:

  • Through the service using the component (if started), or
  • By using the Dapr HTTP or gRPC API directly

Create Container

There are several ways to create a container for your component for eventual deployment.


The .NET 7 and later SDKs enable you to create a .NET-based container for your application without a Dockerfile, even for those targeting earlier versions of the .NET SDK. This is probably the simplest way of generating a container for your component today.

Add the Microsoft.NET.Build.Containers NuGet package to the component project.

dotnet add package Microsoft.NET.Build.Containers

Publish the application as a container:

dotnet publish --os linux --arch x64 /t:PublishContainer -c Release

For more configuration options, such as controlling the container name, tag, and base image, see the .NET publish as container guide.

Use a Dockerfile

While there are tools that can generate a Dockerfile for a .NET application, the .NET SDK itself does not. A typical Dockerfile might look like:

FROM<runtime> AS base

# Creates a non-root user with an explicit UID and adds permission to access the /app folder
# For more info, please refer to
RUN adduser -u 5678 --disabled-password --gecos "" appuser && chown -R appuser /app
USER appuser

FROM<runtime> AS build
COPY ["<application>.csproj", "<application folder>/"]
RUN dotnet restore "<application folder>/<application>.csproj"
COPY . .
WORKDIR "/src/<application folder>"
RUN dotnet build "<application>.csproj" -c Release -o /app/build

FROM build AS publish
RUN dotnet publish "<application>.csproj" -c Release -o /app/publish /p:UseAppHost=false

FROM base AS final
COPY --from=publish /app/publish .
ENTRYPOINT ["dotnet", "<application>.dll"]

Build the image:

docker build -f Dockerfile -t <image name>:<tag> .